Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57(4), 193-216. doi: 10.1037/h0054367.
[Skinner provides some observations on how theories inform research; he suggests that this may not be a good thing. Paper also describes some vocabulary for behavioural science research. Descriptions of behavioural research done with pigeons; lengthy discussion of extinction.]
“… any explanation of an observed fact which appeals to events taking place somewhere else, at some other level of observation, described in different terms, and measured, if at all, in different dimensions.” (p 193)
“… how a mental event can cause a physical one.” (p 194)
“… the use of theory as a refuge from the data” (p 195)
“But we must eventually get back to an observable datum. If learning is the process we suppose it to be, then it must appear so in the situations in which we study it. Even if the basic process belongs to some other dimensional system, our measures must have relevant and comparable properties.” (p 195)
[Noting difference between effect (law = that it happens) and its cause (theory = how). (p 200)]
“Research which is conducted without commitment to theory is more likely to carry the study of extinction into new areas and new orders of magnitude. By hastening the accumulation of data, we speed the departure of theories. If the theories have played no part in the design of our experiments, we need not be sorry to see them go.” (p 210)
“Theories are fun.” (p 215)
“It will not stand in the way of our search for functional relations because it will arise only after relevant variables have been found and studied. Though it may be difficult to understand, it will not be easily misunderstood, …” (p 216)
- Aabø (2005). The role and value of public libraries in the age of digital technologies.
- Gervais (2011). Finding the faithless: Perceived atheist prevalence reduces anti-atheist prejudice.
- Dorner & Gorman (2011). Contextual Factors Affecting Learning in Laos and the Implications for Information Literacy Education.
- Gervais, Shariff, & Norenzayan (2011). Do you believe in atheists? Distrust is central to anti-atheist prejudice.
- Goleman (2000). Emotional intelligence: Issues in paradigm building.
- Smith (1996). David A. Kolb on experiential learning.
- Bruffee (1995). Sharing our toys: Cooperative learning versus collaborative learning.
- Britz (2004). To Know or Not to Know: A Moral Reflection on Information Poverty.
- Wright (2010). Twittering in teacher education.
- Kinasevych (2011). Considering culture in e-learning environments and post-secondary learning success (Abstract)
- Wicks et al. (2011). bPortfolios: Blogging for reflective practice.
- Rinaldo, Tapp, & Laverie (2011). Learning by tweeting: Using Twitter as a pedagogical tool.
- Gabriel & Richtel (2011). A Classroom Software Boom, but Mixed Results Despite the Hype.
- Elavsky, Mislan, & Elavsky (2011). When talking less is more: Exploring outcomes of Twitter usage in the large‐lecture hall.
- Junco, Heiberger, & Loken (2011). The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades.
- Higdon, Reyerson, McFadden & Mummey (2011). Twitter, Wordle, and ChimeIn as Student Response Pedagogies.
- Veltsos & Veltsos (2010). Teaching responsibly with technology-mediated communication.
- Dunlap & Lowenthal (2009). Horton Hears a Tweet.
- Blankenship (2011). How Social Media Can and Should Impact Higher Education.
- Young (2010). Teaching with Twitter: Not for the Faint of Heart.
FeedbackComments, suggestions, criticisms, and any type of feedback would be greatly appreciated. Use the comment tools provided in the articles or use any of the means indicated on the Contact page to reach the author.