Lefoe, G. (1998). Creating constructivist learning environments on the web: The challenge in higher education. In ASCILITE ’98 Conference Proceedings. University of Wollongong: ASCILITE ’98.
“Since the mid sixties, the trend … has been to use behaviourist instructional strategies for subject development …” (p 453)
[Constructivist approach aims for learning environment ...]
“… the constructivist group of theories places less emphasis on the sequence of instruction and more emphasis on the design of the learning environment. (Jonassen, 1994. p 35).” (p 453)
“… ‘metaphors we teach by’ …” [Per Duffy and Cunningham, 1996, p 177] (p 453)
[The worst of teaching being simply placed online ...]
“However Boshier et al (1997 p 347-8) examined 127 courses and expressed concern that some sites emulated ‘the worst of face-to-face courses where power relations are unproblematised and learners constructed as passive recipients of information.’” (p 453)
“… a set of instructional sequences with predetermined outcomes …” (p 454)
“The constructivist group of theories places less emphasis on the sequence of instruction and more emphasis on the design of the learning environment.” (p 454)
“Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge … Instruction is a process of supporting that construction …” (p 454)
“‘Instead of presupposing knowledge is a representation of what exists, knowledge is a mapping, in the light of human experience, of what is feasible’ (von Glaserfield, 1989, p 134 in Duffy and Cunningham, 1996).” (p 454)
[Autonomy and initiative to learners ...]
“… constructivist theories. In this move away from the outcomes based behaviourist theory, more attention was given to the learning process and a greater degree of autonomy and initiative was given to the learner …” (p 455)
“‘Cognitive theory concentrates on the conceptualisation of students’ learning processes. It focuses on the exploration of the way information is received, organised, retained and used by the brain.’ (Thompson et al, 1996. P 11)” (p 455)
“… ‘meaning is imposed on the world by us, rather than existing in the world independently of us’ (Duffy and Jonassen, 1991 p8).” (p 455)
“… the existence of knowledge only occurs within humans who construct their own reality …” (p 455)
“… knowledge is constructed subjectively by people based on their earlier experiences and the way people reflect and metacognitively organise these thoughts …” (p 455)
“A rich learning environment is seen as a major goal in constructivism where ‘prime emphasis is placed on the unique interests, styles, motivations and capabilities of individual learners so that learning environments can be tailored to them’ (Reeves 1992).” (p 455)
[social constructivism ... disequilibrium? ...]
“… ‘learning is seen to occur when the learner’s expectations are not met, and he or she attempts to resolve the discrepancy between what was expected and what was encountered’ (Duffy and Cunningham, 1996 p175).” (p 455)
[Mention of Piaget.] (p 455)
[Mental models of the world ...]
“… ‘mental models that represent what the knower has perceived. These models are used to explain, predict, or infer phenomena in the real world … much of reality is shared through a process of social negotiation.’ (Jonassen, 1994 p35)” (p 456)
[Describing learning environments -- could they be 'mediated' environments for learning? -- oki.] (p 456)
“He expands this concept to include Perkins notion of a ‘rich learning environment’ which emphasise ‘construction kits’ (such as Lego) or authoring kits (such as Hyperstudio) and phenomenaria (‘areas for presenting, observing and manipulating phenomena’ such as ‘instructional simulations’) (Perkins, 1991).” (p 456)
[teacher as ...] “… co-learner …” (p 456)
“… the negotiation, rather than imposition, of goals and objectives …” (p 457)
“Knowledge construction which is: …
… established as a social negotiation of reality; …
… assisted by exploring real world environments and the creation of new environments …” (P 457)
“… modeled by a performer …” (p 457)
[Table comparing design goals] (p 458)
“… embed learning in realistic and relevant contexts …” [Per Cunningham et al, 1993] (p 458)
“… design an authentic task … design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning.” [Per Savery & Duffy, 1995) (p 458)
[ie, authentic assessment -- can authentic assessment remain authentic when it's virtual? -- oki.]
“… signs are semiotic tools …” (p 458)
“Design Goals of a Constructivist Learning Environment or Metaphors to teach by (Duffy and Cunningham, 1996)” (p 458)
“… Knowledge is context dependent, so learning should occur in contexts to which it is relevant [Does changing to online change the context? Probably. -- oki.] …
… Learning is an inherently social-dialogical activity …
… Learners are distributed, multidimensional participants in a socio-cultural process …” (p 458)
“Jonassen points out the difficulties in designing constructivist learning environments because ‘knowledge construction processes are, at least to some degree, context specific’ (Jonassen, 1994, p37).” (p 460)
“In IETBL [one of the courses being studied] the learners negotiated a study topic, either from a suggested list or from their own research. These topics provided the impetus for workshops, including web study guides, about the topics and for discussion about key issues, moderated by the student presenters.” (p 460)
[Use multiple perspectives ...]
“Designers need to provide learning experiences which encourage students to look beyond their own view, since in order to have a world view one’s own view needs to be compared to the alternatives. Multiple perspectives can be determined through engagement with text but are best created through engagement with others, though discussion and argument.” (p 460)
“The provision of realistic or authentic contexts for learning is the basis for many constructivist learning environments (Brown, Collins and Duguid, 1989; CTVG, 1992). The learning environment should ‘stimulate learners so that their thinking is related to actual practice’ (Honebein, 1992 p 20).” (p 460)
“The computer as used in both environments has aspects of both tool and sign.” (p 461)
[Heading] “Learning is an inherently social-dialogical activity” (p 461)
[Social-dialogic == Vygotsky?]
“This goal is a component of goal 4, which emphasises the importance of language as the mediational means (Duffy and Cunningham 1997, p180).” (p 461)
[Heading] “Learners are distributed, multidimensional participants in a socio-cultural process” (p 461)
“This concept moves away from the idea that learning is effective internalising of knowledge towards one that involves a connection with communities and a pattern of participation in community.” (p 461)
[International students may be disadvantaged (cultural component) ...]
“International students in this subject may have been disadvantaged through a lack of cultural understanding of this process and their belief systems of how learning occurs.” (p 462)
“Duffy and Cunningham (1997) identify self-awareness of learning and knowing as the most important goal.” (p 462)
“… reflexivity … reflective journal …” (p 462)
Duffy, T. M., and Jonassen, D.H. (1992). Constructivism and The Technology of instruction: A conversation. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Inc. New Jersey.
Duffy, T. M., and Cunningham, D. J., (1996). Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction, In D. H. Jonassen, (Ed.) Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology, NY: Macmillan Library Reference USA
Perkins, D. (1992) Technology meets Constructivism: Do they make a marriage. In Duffy, T. M., and Jonassen, D.H. Constructivism and The Technology of instruction: A conversation. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Inc. New Jersey.
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