Joyce, B. R., & Weil, M. (2000). Partners In Learning; From Dyads to Group Investigation. In Models of Teaching (6th ed., pp. 31-55). Allyn and Bacon.
“… partnership-based learning …” (p 32)
“The students will learn to accept any members of the class as their partners and will learn that they are to work with each other to try to ensure that everyone achieves the objectives of the activity.” (p 32)
“… building learning communities.” (p 33)
“The difference in maturity between the classes will affect the degree of sophistication of their inquiry …” (p 33)
[Under heading "Purposes and assumptions"...]
“… more motivation …”
“… feelings of connectedness produce positive energy.”
“… learn from one another.”
“… helping hands …”
“… produces cognitive as well as social complexity, creating more intellectual activity that increases learning …” (p 33)
“… increases positive feelings …”
“… increases self-esteem …”
“… the more … opportunity to work together, the better they get at it …”
“… increase their ability to work together.” (p 34)
“… greater mastery of material …” (p 34)
“An exciting use of the cooperative procedures is in combination with models from other families, in an effort to combine the effects of several models.” (p 35)
“… reflecting gains that were twice those of a comparison group …” (p 35)
“… combined cooperative learning with several other models of teaching to obtain dramatic (30 to 95%) increases in promotion rates …” (p 35)
“… decrease in disruptive activity …” (p 35)
“… increase in cognitive complexity …” (p 35)
“Off-task and disruptive behavior [sic] diminish substantially.” (p 35)
“Partnerships increase involvement, and the concentration on cooperation has the side effect of reducing self-absorption and increasing responsibility for personal learning.” (p 35)
“… this belief is expressed as ‘gifted students prefer to work alone.’ A mass of evidence contradicts this belief (Slavin, 1991; Joyce, 1991a)” (p 35)
“… we regulate complexity through the tasks we give and the sizes of groups we form.” (p 36)
“… instructors raise their hands, anyone who notices is t give their attention to the instructor and raise their hands also.” (p 36)
“… ‘numbered heads’ …” (p 36)
“They are responsible for speaking for their groups.” (p 37)
“The least complex involve reflection on the group process and discussions about ways of working together most effectively.” (p 37)
“… students can become quite expert at analyzing group dynamics …” (p 37)
“… jigsaw … (Aronson et al, 1983; Slavin, 1983)” (p 38)
“… division of labor [sic] procedures require students to rotate roles, developing their skills in all areas.” (p 38)
“… whether students are oriented toward competing with one another or with a goal.” (p 38)
“Sharan (1990) has argued that cooperative learning increases learning partly because it causes motivational orientation to move from the external to the internal.” (p 39)
“… the testing and reward structures that prevail in most school environments may actually retard learning.” (p 39)
“John Dewey’s ideas have given rise to the broad and powerful model of teaching known as group investigation.” (p 40)
“… to practice democracy …” (p 40)
“… ideal citizens …” (p 41)
“The implementation of democratic methods of teaching has been exceedingly difficult. They require the teacher to have a high level of interpersonal and instructional skills.” (p 41)
“.. a rich array of instructional resources is necessary …” (p 41)
“A society of reflective thinkers would be capable of improving itself and preserving the uniqueness of individuals.” (p 42)
“… individuals’ way of reflecting on reality are what make their world comprehensible to them and give them personal and social meaning.” (p 43)
“Someone who is insensitive to much of his or her experience and does not reflect on it will have a far less richly constructed world than someone who takes a good deal of experience and reflects fully on it.” (p 43)
“… Hullfish and Smith maintain that individual differences are the strength of a democracy, and negotiating among them is a major democratic activity.” (p 43)
“… models that emphasize democratic process assume that the outcome of any educatinal experience is not completely predictable.” [author's emphasis] (p 43)
[Reference to Thelen, H. (1960), Education and the human quest, University of Chicago Press.] (p 44)
“… many followers and interpreters of Dewey overlook the underlying spirit that brings the democratic process to life.” (p 45)
“… (1) inquiry and (2) knowledge are central to Thelen’s strategy.” (p 46)
“… social process enhances inquiry …” (p 46)
“Because inquiry is basically a social process, students are aided in the self-observer role by interacting with, and by observing the reactions of, other puzzled people.” (p 46)
“… but he points out that most of the energy — the measure of success — was the effectiveness of the television as a blend of entertainment and information giving.” (p 47)
“… the distinction between activity and inquiry.” (p 48)
“… inquiry must emanate from the motivations and curiosity of students.” (p 48)
“The social aspects of group investigation provide a route, therefore, to disciplined academic inquiry.” (p 48)
“As a group confronts a puzzling situation, the reactions of individuals vary widely, and the assumptive worlds that give rise to these varied reactions are even more different than the reactions themselves. The need to reconcile this difference generates a basic challenge. The newly perceived alternatives extend the student’s experience by serving both as a source of self-awareness and as a stimulus to his or her curiosity. Engaged in inquiry with a group, individuals become aware of different points of view that help them find out who they are by seeing themselves projected against the views of others.” (p 49)
“… the original emotional conflict had led to the collection of new information, more disciplined analysis, and finally the development of an instrument for making judgments more objectively.” (p 49)
“… teacher draws their attention to the differences in the reactions …” (p 50)
“The social system is democratic, governed by decisions developed from or at least validated by, the experience of the group …” (p 50)
“The support system for group investigation should be extensive and responsive to the needs of students.” (p 51)
“… the more heterogeneous groups learn more, form more positive attitudes toward learning tasks, and become more positive toward one another (Slavin, 1983).” (p 52)
“This model is highly versatile and comprehensive; it blends the goals of academic inquiry, social integration, and social-process learning. It can be used in all subject areas, with all age levels, when the teacher desires to emphasize the formulation and problem-solving aspects of knowledge rather than the intake of preorganized, predetermined information.” (p 53)
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